Agricultural times - 10.000 years  19th century

Agrarian village
of Cambous

Catal Hüyük
Agrarian city-state
of Çatal Hüyük


of Mari

Birth of agrarian villages,
towns and city-states

Agrarian villages (def.) gathered together plant and animal farmers living in houses (def.), which were places of food consumption, domestic activities,  rest, and protection. The home becomes the centre of domestic life. The village allows the development of public services, solidarity, and conviviality.

The town (def.)  is also a place where the social division of labor occurs, with a majority of residents being non-farmers. Thus it is a place where power, the accumulation of wealth, and social disparities can be found. The inequalities can be seen in architecture and the layout of towns (palace, residential, and working-class districts, etc.).

City-states (def.) appear first in Mesopotamia, as early as 3000 years BP.
With the development of towns, consumption models were modified; the size of the urban population and its level of consumption had to be compatible with the productive capacity of the land and the agricultural productivity of the dependent productive area.

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