of Çatal Hüyük
Birth of agrarian villages,
villages (def.) gathered together plant and animal farmers living in
which were places of food consumption, domestic activities, rest,
and protection. The home becomes the centre of domestic life. The village
allows the development of public services, solidarity, and conviviality.
towns and city-states
The town (def.)
is also a place where the social division of labor occurs, with a majority
of residents being non-farmers. Thus it is a place where power, the accumulation
of wealth, and social disparities can be found. The inequalities can be
seen in architecture and the layout of towns (palace, residential, and
working-class districts, etc.).
(def.) appear first in Mesopotamia, as early as 3000 years BP.
With the development of towns, consumption models were modified; the
size of the urban population and its level of consumption had to be compatible
with the productive capacity of the land and the agricultural productivity
of the dependent productive area.