Nearly exclusively based on rice growth in flooded paddy fields, several South-Eastern Asiatic societies gave birth to what is usually called the "rice civilization". In this case, the word civilization includes social phenomenons (religious, moral, esthetic, scientific, technical) common to a big society or to a group of societies.
This word is used when a field was cultivated every year non stop with periods of fallow land of various time length. Multiple agriculture is referred to when the same field is cultivated several times a year.
Quantitative study of human rural communities with their variations. Relatively stable up to the beginning of the XIXth century, the Javanese population increased rapidly up to the early eighties. The average demographic density (rate) on the Java island grew from 219 inhabitants per km² up to 818 in 1990.
The division of labour is an economical organization defining which task is made by whom, bringing a professional qualification of workers. Due to the surplus in rice production, some families could get qualified in hand craft production. Thus families of potters can be found on the archeological sites , mainly in South-Eastern Asia.
This denomination is used today as referring to the introduction of new cereal varieties ( wheat in 1950 and rice in 1960) and of agricultural techniques providing high yields. The rice varieties for a short cycle of growth, which were invented by the IRRI in the Philippinas, allowed to get two crops a year. In order to reach their high potential, the new varieties needed high input of fertilizers and pesticides and a performing irrigation. In Indonesia, the success encountered with the Green Revolution comes from the introduction of these new varieties as much as the capacity of the government to promote the new techniques, to restore the irrigation network, to organize the credit and to provide technicans to the farmers, to support investment in pesticides and fertilizers, to stabilize the rice price and to controle the commercial network.
Rice is an annual
graminae which grows under tropical and temperate climate. It is a basic
food plant for a great part of the world. It can grow either in wet
paddy fields or in rain seasonal conditions. In South-Eastern Asia,
the rain seasonal rice growth concerns mainly a culture on burned soils
with tree planted fallow. A permanent rice growth in rain seasonal conditions
is not much in use since the peasants neither controle the weeds nor
can they maintain the fertility of the soils. On the contrary, the wet
paddy fields are in favour in many ways according to the origin of the
water and its level of control. One use to talk about: